【1946bv1946】2011年最热门论文排名出炉,结局令人

可见二次具有八个小宝物,是无数想当老爹老妈的人渴望的福分。但事实上,人类双胞胎的自然发生率并不低:环球范围内,平均每柒20个活产儿中就有1对双胞胎,也正是说,平均每四十个孩子中会存在1个双生子。但是由于种族只怕地理间隔,双胞胎的自然爆发率差距超大,澳大圣佩德罗苏拉联邦为6‰,欧洲和美洲国家为10-20‰,北美洲高达40‰。

2011年最热门论文排名出炉

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科学侦察(Science Watch)网站以来回顾了2012年的最叫座商量,根据二〇一八年一年发布故事集的引用次数,评出了二零一二年份最看好杂文排行。同不经常候,依据发布畅销随想的多寡,评出了最热销故事集地经济学家。在火爆杂谈排名中,排在第几个人的为美利坚协作国宝鸡高校奥斯汀分校E. Komatsu等关于宇宙疏解方面包车型大巴舆论,总共被引述563次。夏族地军事学家Tao Ye的小说排在第三14位,援引数为四十五次。在小编排名中,排在第4位的为U.S.A.澳大利亚国立科—俄亥俄州立科博德探究所EricS. Lander,二零一一年他共刊出了14篇遗传学领域的走俏诗歌。上榜的华夏族读书人总结:美利坚合营国洛桑联邦理工业余大学学学硕士后Yongye Liang、中科院金属所长沙材质科学国家实验室成会明商讨员(第十二,10篇故事集)。在杂志方面,在38篇火爆杂谈中,《自然》(Nature)公布了内部的10篇,位居第一;《新英格兰经济学杂志》(New England Journal of Medicine)紧随其后,共宣布了在那之中的8篇;《科学》(Science)杂志以3篇名列第三。(科学网 任春晓/编写翻译) 附:二〇一三年最火爆故事集

近日,有名管法学期刊《新竹爱尔兰工学杂志》发表了一篇新随想,内容是澳洲物法学家MichaelGabbett发掘了一对“半同卵双胞”龙凤胎,他们来自阿妈的基因完全相通,来自老爹的基因却只重合一部分。

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可以知道二遍具备五个珍宝,是累累想当阿爹老母的人期盼的福气。但实在,人类双胞胎的自然产生率并不低:满世界范围内,平均每76个活产儿中就有1对双胞胎,也便是说,平均每三十多少个儿童中会存在1个双生子。然则由于种族或然地理间隔,双胞胎的自然发生率差别比十分大,Australia为6‰,欧洲和美洲国家为10-20‰,亚洲高达40‰。

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前日,有名历史学期刊《台南爱尔兰农学杂志》发表了一篇新故事集,内容是澳国地医学家MichaelGabbett开采了一对“半同卵双胞”龙凤胎,他们来自阿妈的基因完全等同,来自阿爹的基因却只重合一部分。

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E. Komatsu, et al., "Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: Cosmological interpretations,"Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 192: No. 18, February 2011.

那么那个“半同卵双胞胎”到底是怎么回事呢?与同卵双胞胎和异卵双胞胎又有啥区别啊?下边就为大家解答一下。

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双胞胎变成的“第二种方法”

D. Larson, et al., "Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: Power spectra and WMAP-derived parameters,"Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser.,192: No. 16, February 2011.

诚如意义上双胞胎被分成两类:同卵双胞胎和异卵双胞胎。

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同卵双胞胎为1个卵细胞和1个精子结合生成的受精卵不相同并单独发育而来,双胞胎的基因大概完全相通,因而他们性别平等,外表看起来也一律。

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N. Jarosik, et al., "Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: Sky maps, systematic errors, and basic results,"Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser.,192: No. 14, February 2011.

图 | Gabbett MT,Laporte J, Sekar 奥德赛, Nandini A, McGrath P, Sapkota Y, et al. Molecular Supportfor Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:842-9. 孟尧裁剪、整合、标明

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异卵双胞胎则为三个完全两样的受精卵发育而来。理论上,异卵双胞胎分享五成平等基因,那与不足为道的兄弟姐妹之间分享五成同出一辙基因未有怎么不一样,因而他们能够是性别不相同的龙凤胎,外表也各有特点。这也是为什么某些双胞胎长得像一些不像的来头。

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R. Lister, et al., "Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells,"Nature, 471: 68-73, 3 March 2011.

图 | Gabbett MT,Laporte J, Sekar 凯雷德, Nandini A, McGrath P, Sapkota Y, et al. Molecular Supportfor Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:842-9. 孟尧裁剪、整合、标记

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从上面三种境况来看,双胞胎基因相仿度要么是百分之百,要么是十分之五。那么介于两者之间的动静会存在吗?此次的开掘用实际报告大家实在存在——那对“半同卵双胞”龙凤胎的基因雷同度为89%。这那到底怎么吗?

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A. Gore, et al., "Somatic coding mutations in human induced pluripotent stem cells,"Nature, 471: 63-7, 3 March 2011.

图 | Gabbett MT,Laporte J, Sekar 哈弗, Nandini A, McGrath P, Sapkota Y, et al. Molecular Supportfor Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:842-9. 孟尧裁剪、整合、评释

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干什么会冒出“半同卵双胞胎”?

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伊始,那位二十九虚岁的准阿妈在孕6周的超声申报呈现宫内含有三个胎盘五个羊膜囊,确诊为“同卵双胎”。不过孕14周的告知令人惊诧分外:双胞胎婴孩居然是龙凤胎!随后的基因检查评定发掘,多个胎儿来自母系的基因100%肖似,来自阿爸的基因为嵌合体有77.7%同一。总体来讲,他们的基因相像度达89%。也正是说,三个婴儿有一套协同的母系基因,而分享两套父系基因。

S.G.F. Rasmussen, et al., "Structure of a nanobody-stabilized active state of the β2 adrenoreceptor,"Nature, 469: 175-80, 13 January 2011.

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图 | Gabbett MT,Laporte J, Sekar PAJERO, Nandini A, McGrath P, Sapkota Y, et al. Molecular Supportfor Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:842-9. 孟尧裁剪、整合、评释

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参谋此前的讨论,这种情景的发出存在三种恐怕。第一种恐怕是,卵细胞在受精此前差别为多个卵细胞,但从未完全分开,随后分别和差异的精子完结受精进程。卵细胞发素不相识裂的情事——卵细胞孤雌生殖激活——确实存在,但照旧不受精发展为带头样畸胎瘤,要么失去重塑精子染色质的本事而告一段落孕珠。

S.J. Connolly, et al., "Apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation,"New Engl. J. Med., 364: 806-17, 3 March 2011.

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图 | Giltay JC, Brunt T, Beemer FA,Wit J-M, Ploos van Amstel HK, PearsonPL, et al. Polymorphic Detection of aParthenogenetic Maternal and Double Paternal Contribution to a 46,XX/46,XYHermaphrodite. The American Journal ofHuman Genetics. 一九九六;62:937-40. 孟尧裁剪、整合、证明

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其次种大概是物农学家曾建议的“异源细胞分化”学说,也是本次开采者MichaelGabbett更承认的表达:2个精子同一时间和1个卵母细胞结合变成三倍体受精卵,在“三极纺锤体”的效力下分裂为3种二倍体细胞,三种均含有一套父系和一套母系的染色体,这两种细胞继续发育成三个胚胎;而除此以外一种含两套父系的染色体,在生长进程中发育停滞死亡,由此发育而来的双胞胎也被叫做“半同卵双胞胎”。

F. Zannad, et al., "Eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms,"New Engl. J. Med., 364: 11-21, 6 January 2011.

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图 | Gabbett MT,Laporte J, Sekar 凯雷德, Nandini A, McGrath P, Sapkota Y, et al. Molecular Supportfor Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:842-9. 孟尧裁剪、整合、注解

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这种意况实为稀少,因为MichaelGabbett团队随着对既往诊断为“异卵双胞胎”的968对双胞胎进行检验,并未有察觉半同卵双生的凭据。

S.M. Hussein, et al., "Copy number variation and selection during reprogramming to pluripotency,"Nature, 471: 58-62, 3 March 2011.

“半同卵双胞胎”的发育情状怎么着?

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由于半同卵双胞胎发育自同叁个三倍体受精卵,因而那七个胚胎大概不可制止地涌出了嵌合状态:两个体内均检查测量试验到46,XX/46,XY核型,只可是比例分歧。XX/XY嵌合比例挨近的发育为男孩,而比例十分的大的发育为女孩。

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开局,三个宝物出生阿普加评分杰出,且超声检查未见生殖系统十分表现。不过女婴孩在诞生时产生下腔静脉栓子脱落产生左臂臂紫癜,肝素医治无效后展开手術截肢。3岁体格检查时意识性腺发育非常,那将净增现在罹患肿瘤的风险,因而医务卫生职员进行了防备性卵巢切去术。除却,那对双胞胎发育健康。

R.B. Zhou, et al., "A role for mitochondria in NLRP3 inflammasome activation,"Nature, 469: 221-5, 13 January 2011.

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图 | Gabbett MT,Laporte J, Sekar 奥迪Q5, Nandini A, McGrath P, Sapkota Y, et al. Molecular Supportfor Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:842-9. 孟尧裁剪、整合、注解

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实际,早在2005年美国化学家Vivienne Souter就报导了天下无双对半同卵双胞胎,但他俩是在一败涂地后才被明确为半同卵双胞胎。五个婴儿也表现了不一样程度的嵌合核型,男婴儿发育健康,而另叁个乖乖则显现为真两性异形。

C.E. Aalseth, et al., "Results from a search for light-mass dark matter with a p-type point contact germanium detector,"Phys. Rev. Lett., 106: No. 131301, 29 March, 2011.

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A.E. Giuliano, et al., "Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: A randomized clinical trial,"JAMA-J. Am Med. Assn., 305: 569-75, 9 February 2011.

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T.Y. Chu, et al., "Bulk heterojunction solar cells using thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione and dithieno [3,2-b:2 ‘,3’-d]silole copolymer with a power conversion efficiency of 7.3%,"J. Am Chem. Soc., 133: 4250-3, 30 March 2011.

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V. Khachatryan, et al., "Search for supersymmetry in pp collisions at 7 TeV in events with jets and missing transverse energy,"Phys. Lett. B, 698: 196-218, 11 April 2011.

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L.C. Laurent, et al., "Dynamic changes in the copy number of pluripotency and cell proliferation genes in human ESCs and iPSCs during reprogramming and time in culture,"Cell Stem Cell,8: 106-18, 7 January 2011.

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D.F. Egan, et al., "Phosphorylation of ULK1 by AMP-activated protein kinase connects energy sensing to mitophagy,"Science, 3319: 456-61, 28 January 2011.

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A. Krzton-Maziopa, et al., "Synthesis and crystal growth of Cs0.82: a new iron-based superconductor with Tc = 27 K,"J.Phys.-Cond. Mat., 23: No. 052203, 9 February 2011.

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J. O’Shaughnessy, et al., "Iniparib plus chemotherapy in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer,"New Engl. J. Med., 364: 205-14, 20 January 2011.

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Y. Umena, et al., "Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9 angstrom,"Nature, 473: 55-60, 5 May 2011.

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F. Poordad, et al., "Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection,"New Engl. J. Med., 364: 1195-1206, 31 March 2011.

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P.Y. Huang, et al., "Grains and grain boundaries in single-layer graphene atomic patchwork quilts,"Nature, 469: 389-92, 20 January 2011.

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D.M. Rosenbaum, et al., "Structure and function of an irreversible agonist- β2 adrenoreceptor complex,"Nature, 469: 236-40, 13 January 2011.

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H.J. Bouman, et al., "Paraoxonase-1 is a major determinant of clopidogrel efficacy,"Nature Med., 17: 110-6, January 2011.

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T. Sato, et al., "Paneth cells constitute the niche for Lgr5 stem cells in intestinal crypts,"Nature, 469: 415-8, 20 January 2011.

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A.V. Khera, et al., "Cholesterol efflux capacity, high-density lipoprotein function, and atherosclerosis,"New Engl. J. Med., 364: 127-35, 13 January 2011.

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J.N. Coleman, et al., "Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,"Science, 331: 568-71, 4 February 2011.

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T. Aaltonen, et al., "Evidence for a mass dependent forward-backward asymmetry in top quark pair production,"Phys. Rev. D, 83: No. 112003, 8 June 2011.

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K. Atarashi, et al., "Induction of colonic regulatory T cells by indigenous Clostridium species,"Science, 331: 337-41, 21 January 2011.

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G.W. Stone, et al., "A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,"New Eng. J. Med., 364: 226-35, 20 January 2011.

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S.C. Price, et al., "Fluorine substituted conjugated polymer method of medium band gap yields 7% efficiency in polymer-fullerene solar cells,"J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133: 4625-31, 30 March 2011.

本文由韦德娱乐1946发布于科学技术,转载请注明出处:【1946bv1946】2011年最热门论文排名出炉,结局令人

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